Human psyche is one of the most complex and not completely studied systems, the state of which is influenced by a large number of factors. In order for a person to feel good and be able to live a full life, he must be not only physically, but mentally healthy
Periodic change of mood and physical well-being is a completely normal and understandable process. It is associated with various events in a person's life. These can be both positive and negative incidents, as well as with various physical conditions (illness, recovery, etc.).
How, if such changes occur often enough for no apparent reason, or reactions to an event become inadequate, it may be a manifestation of mental illness.
One of the most common is bipolar affective personality disorder, which can occur in both adults and adolescents
To ensure that our readers have the opportunity to timely identify this disease in themselves or their loved ones, we have studied its nature and manifestations in more detail.
The essence of bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder is an alternation of several conditions that are characterized by an unhealthy perception of one's own personality, the current state of affairs, as well as inadequate reactions to various factors. Due to the presence of several phases that occur with different frequency and sequence, BAR disease is also called manic depression or manic-depressive disorder
Some term "bipolar" is a characteristic denoting the presence of two absolutely opposite states, each of which deviates from the norm.
Are you curious to know what the symptoms of endogenous depression are?
Bar is characterized by several states:
- Mania or hypomania
On them are characterized by increased excitability of the psyche, they pass in several stages, in the process the intensity of manifestation first increases, reaching a peak, then declines.
Manic disorder is characterized by three main signs: elevated mood, acceleration of thinking and high motor activity.
Dance between mania and hypomannia consists only in the intensity of the manifestation of the main signs, in the second case they are much weaker.
Intensity of the main symptoms, as in the case of mania, changes - first increases, then declines. Depression is characterized by a deterioration in mood, inhibition of mental and physical activity.
Whoe a person can both negatively but relatively sensibly assess the situation, and fall into depressive psychosis - this is a condition in which the adequacy of perception is severely impaired and often contradicts common sense
- Intermission or interphase
Normal state of mind, which is characterized by a calm state and adequate reactions to stress factors. A person thinks sensibly, there are no deviations in the speed of perception or physical reactions.
Manic depressive psychosis is a type of BAR, which is characterized by states of mania and depression, with them perception and other reactions are grossly disturbed. Regardless of which phase a person is in, this is always an increased load on the psyche.y, which can lead to anxiety disorders and other diseases.
Types of bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorders are divided into two main types: I and II. The main difference is the predominance of a particular phase (mania or depression).
- Bipolar disorder1 type is a condition characterized by signs of mania. At the same time, an episode of depression may be present, but, often, it is one and expressed rather weakly. As for mania, its onset occurs in waves: first hypomania is observed, then directly mania with pronounced main symptoms, then again hypomania, then interphase.
- Bipolar disorder type 2 is characterized by more frequent phases of depression. In this case, hypomania can be a single episode with a very weak manifestation or absent at all. The most noticeable are the states of depression and intermission.
Recere of states and phase duration may vary. Today, bipolar depression has several types:
- Monopolye BAR - these include periodic mania or depression, which alternate with intermission without going into the opposite state (only manic or only depressive phase.
- Rule-intermittent BAR - this disease is characterized by the change of mania to intermission, then the onset of depression and again intermission. The number and frequency of repetitions are not limited.
- Indeterminate-intermittent BAR - there is an alternation of unhealthy state and intermission, but there is no clear sequence. In such cases, mania can be replaced again by mania, and depression - by depression.
- Dive BAR - interphase occurs after the change of mania by depression or vice versa, but does not separate them.
- Circular BAR - mania changes to depression, but intermissions do not occur.
The complexity of diagnosing the type, type and presence of bipolar disorder as such is that the symptoms can manifest themselves with completely different frequency and duration (from several weeks to decades), and the signs themselves can be characteristic of other disorders: anxiety disorders, depression, etc.
Symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and adolescents
Signs of bipolar disorder in adults and adolescents are similar, they may differ in the intensity of manifestation, as well as the patient's awareness of the inadequacy of his condition
Bipolar disorder has the following symptoms characteristic of each phase:
- During the onset of the manic phase, there is a feeling of euphoria and an unreasonably optimistic attitude. A person becomes very active, is in nervous and mental arousal, it is difficult for him to stay in one place for a long time. Speech becomes fast and emotional, with increased symptoms incomprehensible and confused, accompanied by active gestures. With especially acute manifestations, the patient can be aggressive towards others, acutely negatively perceive even constructive criticism and remarks. The duration of sleep decreases, the body can not normally rest and recover, which worsens the concentration of attention.< / li>
Deens begin to have problems with their studies, misunderstandings with their parents and immediate environment. The child may feel that he is not understood and even envied by outstanding abilities.
- Transition to the depressive phase is accompanied by a loss of interest in everything that until recently a person perceived with great enthusiasm. The future and the present are seen extremely negatively, a person has a feeling of anxiety, sometimes fear. The patient gradually loses strength, while he can be tormented by insomnia, which only worsens the condition. The further course of depression may be accompanied by an increase in the duration of sleep when the patient sleeps for days, while the energy and strength no longer becomes. Loss of concentration, slow perception and the ability to think can not only negatively affect work and relationships with loved ones, but also pose an immediate danger if a person is driving or in a potentially dangerous place
Depression is one of the leading causes of suicide, especially in adolescents.
Diagnosing bipolar disorder on your own is almost impossible, but if you notice similar signs in yourself or loved ones, or obvious symptoms are found in adolescents from your environment, you should immediately consult a specialist. It is important to understand that manic-depressive psychosis has more pronounced inadequate symptoms, while bipolar-affective disorder in a milder manifestation will look like periodic mood swings.
The cause of the occurrence can be a genetic predisposition, a large percentage of patients have psychiatric diseases or disorders in other family members. Bipolar disorder often occurs in women suffering from postpartum depression. Also, the first impetus can be moral or physical trauma, in such cases, in addition to BAR, other diseases can develop - anxiety disorders, syndromes, etc.
Treatment of bipolar disorder
The branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis and correction is psychiatry. At the same time, initially you can seek advice from a psychotherapist who, with the help of special screening and testing, will be able to determine the current condition and the presence of deviations as such.
Diagnosed bipolar disorder is treated with the help of courses of psychotherapy, which involves the use of various methods of influencing the human psyche. One of the most popular is cognitive psychotherapy.
Parallelly used and drug treatment, involving the use of antidepressants for depressive and neuroleptics for the manic phase. In no case can you independently prescribe yourself drugs, increase or decrease the dosage, and also violate the rules for taking any of the drugs. This can not only negate all treatment, but also significantly worsen the condition.
Yrest a psychotherapist or psychiatrist you can use our service. Specialists conduct consultations online, this will make it possible to start treatment in the most comfortable atmosphere. An additional advantage of this format is that you are not limited in geography, the specialist can be in another city or country.