Human psyche is one of the most complex and not fully understood systems, the study of which raises more and more questions. One of the main features is its flexibility, thanks to which different people will react to the same situation in completely different ways.
One of the factors that affect the human psyche, as well as the quality of his life, is stress, or rather the ability to resist it. In order to minimize the negative consequences that can result from tragedies, injuries or other traumatic incidents, the human psyche has special protective mechanisms. The essence of their action is to reduce the intensity of negative reactions and emotions, at the same time, a person can soberly assess the situation in which he is, look for and find a rational solution or adapt to new conditions
I regret this mechanism does not always work correctly and the consequences of stress can be mental disorders that have various manifestations, intensity and impact on the quality of life, which is always negativ
In this article, we will take a closer look at the dissociative disorders that can occur as a result of unbearable stress. The main problem is a violation of the perception of one's own identity, it affects the memory, consciousness, and physical activity of a person.
Types of dissociative disorder
In the basis of all dissociative disorders is the tendency of the human psyche to dissociate. In fact, this is one of the defense mechanisms that normally protects the psyche from unbearable stress. The launch of this mechanism allows a person to abstract from what is happening to him emotionally, that is, he can perceive and analyze everything as if from the outside
If you perceive memory, consciousness, a sense of a person's identity, his emotions and other manifestations as a single continuous stream, then dissociation separates a certain spectrum of reactions of the psyche from him. At the same time, the main components are preserved and the psyche remains normal. With dissociative disorders, this separation becomes excessive and leads to mental disorders.
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There are several types of dissociative disorders:
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
This is a state in which a person's consciousness is divided into several streams, each of them functions as an independent personality. At the same time, "inside" one person, there can be dozens of different "personalities" who have different gender, age, sexual orientation, etc. In psychiatry, these personalities are called "ego-states". In the same period of time, the patient can stay only in one ego-state, after the trigger is influenced, it switches to another. At the same time, the next person does not remember what the previous one did.
In dissociative identity disorder, along with states that have separated, there is always a "basic personality" that preserves a person's real memory and consciousness. There is a theory that ego states are formed to solve psychological problems that a person can cope with. can't.
- Dissociative amnesia
In this disorder, a person forgets a certain episode in his life or a significant part of it. The patient is aware of his condition, he can remember in detail everything until the moment of memory loss and normally perceive and remember new information. Amnesia occurs suddenly as a result of stress, while the person is not injured and is not exposed to psychotropic or any other substances. Memory can be restored after a certain period of time.
- Dissociative Fugue
A dissociative fugue is characterized by a state in which a person abruptly moves to a new place, often at a fairly long distance. At the same time, he creates a completely new personality for himself, forgetting his name, profession and other information. At the same time, skills and acquired knowledge that are not related to personal information are preserved, he can remember foreign languages, have specific knowledge acquired at previous work. As for the personality itself, then, in addition to the name, date of birth and other data, the manner of behavior, character, habits, gait, mimicry, etc. may change
Retriving to a normal state occurs suddenly, the memory and emotions that he experienced at the time of the debut of the dissociative fugue return sharply to a person. The diagnosis in some manifestations is similar to personality disorder, but in this case the new identity is one and there is no constant switching between states.
This is a disorder of perception of one's own "I". A person has a state in which he observes himself as if from the outside, while he cannot influence some situations and participate in them. A feeling of emptiness is established, in which a person is "present, but does not participate" in his own life. This state can be prolonged or episodic, arising immediately after stress.
There are also dissociative disorders that have symptoms similar to trance and obsession. The patient may experience convulsions similar to an epilepsy attack. The main difference is the cause of origin - intolerable stress.
Vigoration for a specialist can be memory lapses, dulling of sensations, when a person is emotionless, physiological sensitivity may also weaken. One of the symptoms is a feeling of jamevyu - a feeling that you see a familiar person or stay in a familiar place for the first time
Causes of dissociative disorder
High above we talked about the fact that the cause of the debut of dissociative disorder is stress. But stress itself is a state of mind as a reaction to a situation that is accompanied by negative emotions (fear, anxiety, shame, etc.)
Causes of stress can be as follows:
- Violence - it can manifest itself within a family or collective. It can be physical, emotional and sexual, in most cases a person is exposed to several varieties at the same time. A traumatic episode often occurs in childhood.
- Trauma - the condition is not affected by saMo mutilation or pain, and psychological stress, which a person succumbs to in the process or after the episode.
- Catastropha - a strong shock a person can get during a terrorist attack, explosion during hostilities, accidents, etc. Fire, flood and other natural disasters can have a similar effect
- There or separation from a loved one.
In the risk group are people who have mental disorders: depression, mania, schizoid and other types. The condition is greatly complicated if a person takes drugs or suffers from alcoholism, and also does not have support from loved ones.
Treatment of dissociative disorders
The most effective approach is a comprehensive treatment, which consists of psychotherapy and medications
The first stage is always the diagnosis, which is carried out by a psychotherapist or psychiatrist. He can identify dissociative disorder and its type, as well as confirm or exclude the presence of concomitant disorders. In some cases, hypnosis can be used, it is effective for memory loss.
One of the most effective methods of psychotherapy is cognitive-behavioral. It is based on identifying the root cause of the disorder - erroneous beliefs on which a person's perception of himself and others, reactions to situations is built. In cognitive disorders, the main task is to unite various manifestations - consciousness, memory, reactions, into one continuous stream. A person regains his "I", learns to adequately assess and respond to situations.
As for the drug approach, it is aimed at alleviating the condition and normalizing the physiological processes that accompany the mental disorder. The patient may be prescribed antidepressants or antipsychotics, the drug is selected individually only after diagnosing all diseases and disorders
How to find a specialist?
Diagnosis and treatment of dissociative disorders are handled by psychotherapists and psychiatrists. Psychological assistance online can be provided using our service, consultations are held in a convenient online format.
Important to understand that mental disorders are specific conditions in which a person cannot adequately assess the situation himself. Therefore, you should contact immediately after you or your loved one feel discomfort or notice the manifestations that we talked about above. The earlier the problem is identified, the faster the positive effect will be.
Corribly selected psychotherapy allows you to either completely cure the disorder and achieve a state of mental health in which a person is realized and lives a full life, or to achieve sustainable remission. In any of the options, the quality of life of not only the patient himself, but also his environment increases. The effectiveness of this approach lies in the fact that the person himself can find a solution to the problem and prevent its occurrence in the future. At the same time, the body does not have any kind of physical influence, which means the likelihood of addiction or side effects is excluded.
Psychic health is the key to a full and happy life.